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How Many Cannabis Plants Can You Legally Grow?

jennifer williams cbd content writer
Jennifer Williams
March 26, 2023
Evidence Based
This post has 4 references

Are you one of the many people who have recently turned to growing your own cannabis at home? Or perhaps you’re considering it, but are unsure about how many plants you can legally grow without violating any laws. 

It’s a common question among new and experienced growers alike, and in this blog post, we’ll dive into the details of cannabis cultivation laws to give you a clear understanding of how many plants you can legally grow – both for personal use or commercial purposes. So sit back, light up if that’s your thing, and let’s get started!

In the United States, cannabis is legal for medicinal purposes in 33 states and recreational use in 10 states. 

Canada legalized cannabis for medicinal purposes nationwide in 2001, with legalization for recreational use taking effect in 2018. 

In Europe, Portugal decriminalized all drug use in 2001, including cannabis. Spain has a network of private clubs where members can grow and consume cannabis

The Netherlands has a system of licensed coffee shops where customers can purchase small amounts of cannabis.

Growing marijuana at home

Alaska

In Alaska, adults 21 and over can grow up to six cannabis plants for personal use. However, no more than three of these plants can be in the flowering stage at any given time. 

Additionally, each household is limited to a total of 12 plants, regardless of the number of adults living there. 

Cultivation must take place in a secured area that is not visible from a public area or accessible to minors.

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Arizona

In Arizona, an individual with a valid medical marijuana license can grow up to 12 cannabis plants. 

If the individual has more than one qualifying condition, they may be able to grow up to 18 plants.

California

There is no limit to the number of cannabis plants that you can grow in California. However, there are some restrictions on where you can grow your plants and how many plants you can have in your possession at any given time.

If you want to grow cannabis for personal use, you can have up to six plants in your home. If you want to grow more than six plants, you need to get a license from the state. 

There are also limits on how much cannabis you can possess at any given time. For example, adults 21 and over can possess up to one ounce of cannabis in public and up to eight ounces of cannabis in their private residence.

Colorado

The state of Colorado allows adults 21 and over to grow up to six cannabis plants, with no more than three mature flowering plants at a time.

If you have a medical marijuana license, the limit is increased to twelve plants. All plants must be grown in an enclosed, locked space, out of public view. 

It is also important to note that while growing your own cannabis is legal in Colorado, it is still illegal to sell it.

Hawaii

In Hawaii, patients are allowed to grow a maximum of three mature cannabis plants and four immature plants at any given time. 

However, these numbers can fluctuate depending on the amount of available space and whether or not the patient has a caregiver.

Illinois

In Illinois, you are allowed to grow up to five cannabis plants at a time. If you have more than five plants, you may be subject to punishment by the state.

Maine

In the state of Maine, an individual is allowed to possess up to 2.5 ounces of usable marijuana and grow up to six flowering cannabis plants. 

If an individual has more than 2.5 ounces of usable marijuana or more than six flowering cannabis plants, they may be subject to criminal penalties.

Massachusetts

In Massachusetts, you can grow up to six cannabis plants for personal use. If you have more than six plants, you may be subject to criminal penalties.

Michigan

In Michigan, you can grow up to 12 cannabis plants for personal use. If you have more than 12 plants, you may be subject to penalties under state law.

Missouri

In Missouri, an individual with a state-issued medical marijuana card can grow up to six cannabis plants. If a patient has more than one qualifying condition, they may be allowed to grow up to 18 plants. 

Missouri also allows patients to designate a caregiver to grow and cultivate cannabis on their behalf.

Montana

In Montana, adults age 21 and over may grow up to four cannabis plants per household. 

However, each plant must be registered with the state, and only 12 total plants may be registered per household.

Nevada

In Nevada, you can legally grow up to six cannabis plants for personal use. If you have more than six plants, you may be subject to criminal penalties. 

There are a few exceptions to this rule. For example, if you are a medical marijuana patient, you may be able to grow more than six plants with a doctor’s recommendation.

New Mexico

As of 2019, the limit for adult patients is 16 plants total. Adult patients may possess up to two ounces of usable cannabis. 

“Useable cannabis” means the dried flowers of the cannabis plant, and any leaves or trimmings from those flowers. It does not include the weight of seeds, stems, or roots.

New York

The legal landscape surrounding cannabis cultivation can be complex and confusing, especially when laws vary from state to state. So, how many cannabis plants can you legally grow in New York?

The answer depends on a few factors, including the purpose of your grow operation and whether or not you have a medical marijuana license. 

For personal use, the maximum number of plants you can grow is two. If you have a medical marijuana license, however, you can grow up to 30 plants.

Of course, these are just the state laws. Local laws may further restrict or prohibit cannabis cultivation, so it’s always best to check with your local authorities before getting started.

Oklahoma

Oklahoma residents are allowed to grow up to 12 cannabis plants for personal use. However, only three of those plants can mature at any given time. Plants must also be kept in an enclosed, locked space.

Oregon

In Oregon, you can legally grow up to four cannabis plants. However, if you have more than four plants, you must have a medical marijuana card. If you have a medical marijuana card, you can grow up to eight plants.

Rhode Island

In Rhode Island, the maximum number of cannabis plants that you can legally grow is five. If you want to grow more than five plants, you will need to obtain a license from the Rhode Island Department of Business Regulation.

Vermont

In Vermont, you can legally grow up to six cannabis plants. If you have more than six plants, you may be subject to criminal penalties.

Virginia

In Virginia, you can legally grow up to four cannabis plants per household. However, these plants must be kept out of public view, and you must have a valid medical reason for growing them. If you are caught growing more than four plants, you could face up to 10 years in prison and a $2,500 fine.

Washington

State laws regarding cannabis cultivation can vary greatly. In some states, like Colorado and Washington, adults are allowed to grow a limited number of plants for personal use. 

Other states have more restrictive laws that only allow medical patients to grow cannabis with a doctor’s recommendation.

In Washington, adults 21 and over can grow up to six plants for personal use. However, no more than three of those plants can mature at any given time. 

Additionally, each adult household can possess a total of eight ounces of usable cannabis. These limits are the same regardless of whether the cannabis is grown indoors or outdoors.

Washington, D.C.

The District of Columbia allows residents to grow up to six cannabis plants, with no more than three plants flowering at any given time. 

However, it is important to note that while the cultivation of cannabis is legal in D.C., it is still illegal to sell or gift cannabis without a license from the Alcoholic Beverage Regulation Administration (ABRA).

Why You Should Grow Your Own Cannabis at Home

There are many reasons why you should grow your own cannabis at home. For one, it is much cheaper than buying it from a dispensary. 

You also have complete control over the grow operation, so you can ensure that your plants are healthy and of high quality. 

Additionally, growing your own cannabis gives you the opportunity to experiment with different strains and learn about the plant in general. Finally, it is simply satisfying to be able to walk into your backyard and harvest your own buds!

How to Grow Cannabis Plants at Home

Assuming you would like tips for growing cannabis plants at home:

Cannabis cultivation has been taking place indoors since the early 1970s and is widely considered one of the most rewarding hobbies someone can take on.

Growing your own supply of cannabis not only ensures you have a personal stash on hand whenever you need it, but it also allows you to cultivate unique strains and perfect your grow technique. 

While cannabis cultivation takes effort, time, and attention, almost anyone can do it as long as they’re willing to learn and put in the work.

Here are some tips for growing cannabis plants at home:

  • Choose a suitable location for your plants, with ample space, proper ventilation, and adequate light.
  • Invest in high-quality soil or a nutrient-rich hydroponic system for optimal growth.
  • Monitor the pH levels and water your plants regularly to prevent over or under watering.
  • Select the right strains for your needs and ensure you have the necessary equipment, such as grow lights, fans, and temperature controllers.
  • Follow a consistent feeding schedule and use the right nutrients, including nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, to encourage healthy growth.
  • Keep a close eye on your plants for signs of pests or disease and take prompt action if necessary.
  • Monitor the temperature and humidity levels in your grow room to maintain optimal conditions for your plants.
  • Research and stay up-to-date on the latest tips and techniques for growing cannabis to improve your yields and quality.

The Bottom Line

The bottom line is that growing cannabis is still illegal in many places. 

Even if you are lucky enough to live in a state or country where it is legal, there are often strict limits on how many plants you can grow. 

So, before you start growing your own cannabis, make sure you know the laws in your area.

Resources:

jennifer williams cbd content writer

Jennifer Williams - Expert cannabis author

Jennifer Williams is a freelance writer from Vancouver, Canada specializing in CBD and delta 8 THC cannabis. She’s read thousands of studies on CBD and other supplements, helping her translate complex science into plain language. Jennifer has tried and reviewed dozens of CBD brands and products, written third-party testing reports, and knows the CBD and delta-8 THC industry inside and out. 

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